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Table 1 Possible outcomes of the acculturation process

From: The influence of biculturalism/integration attributes on ethnic food identity formation

AssimilationAssimilation occurs when individuals reject their minority culture and adopt the cultural norms of the dominant or host culture.
SeparationSeparation occurs when individuals reject the dominant or host culture in favour of preserving their culture of origin. Separation is often facilitated by immigration to ethnic enclaves
IntegrationIntegration occurs when individuals can adapt to the cultural norms of the dominant or host culture while maintaining their culture of origin. Integration leads to and is often synonymous with biculturalism
MarginalisationMarginalisation occurs when individuals reject both their culture of origin and the dominant host culture.