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Table 2 The basic data on the breweries to produce organic sake. They are small to medium-sized breweries and located in different regions. They are rather veteran breweries to produce organic sake with the experiences of about 10 to 20 years. Despite this, the ratios of organic sake to total is small for the four breweries. Though one brewery produces organic rice for itself, the others buy from a small number of farms. The breweries can sell organic sake as organic without a JAS certificate in Japan. They are requested legally to comply with the Organic Labelling Standards of Sake among Others of National Tax Agency [14]

From: Will organic sake intoxicate consumers? Procurements of rice as bottlenecks and comparative procurement strategies by four brewers in Japan

  Brewery A Brewery B Brewery C Brewery D
Brewery location Tōhoku Hokuriku Chūgoku Chūbu
Year of company creation 1973 Sometime in 1818–1831 1867 1738
Year of incorporation 1973 1950 1952 1970s
Capital fund 150 million yen 51 million yen 10 million yen 214 million yen
No. of employees About 140 19 9 17
No. of non-regular or part-time employees About 40 About 10 4 3
Annual sake production 2343 kl 252 kl 180 kl 450 kl
Annual brewing capacity 5400 kl 540 kl 360 kl 900 kl
Average rice-polishing ratio 60 to 65% 67 to 68% 60% 68%
Year to start organic sake production 2002 About 2011 2007 About 2000
Annual production of organic sake 42 kl 4.3 kl About 3.1 kl 36 kl
The ratio of organic sake to annual production (%) 1.8% 1.7% 0.9% 8.0%
Average polishing ratio of organic rice 60% 70% 70% 62 to 63%
The amount of organic rice to purchase 32,160 kg 3600 kg 2800 kg  
No. of supplying organic rice producers 4 or 5 1 Self-supply 4
Organic certification in a brewery   JONA, EU, COR JAS, EU, USDA