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Table 1 Sampling locations and key points in the elaboration process of Chicha de Güiñapo in the Arequipa region

From: Ancestral Peruvian ethnic fermented beverage “Chicha” based on purple corn (Zea mays L.): unraveling the health-relevant functional benefits

Zone Arequipa (Z1) Characato (Z2) Socabaya (Z3) Chiguata (Z4) Uchumayo (Z5)
Latitude − 16.457194 − 16.464156 − 16.457194 − 16.402603 − 16.424996
Longitude − 71.543811 − 71.493390 − 71.543811 − 71.391579 − 71.663230
Name of the Picanteria La Nueva Palomino Charito Andenes del Koricancha Doña Leo Picanteria-Bar Marilú
Raw material Purple corn Purple corn Commercial Güiñapo1 Commercial Güiñapo1 Commercial Güiñapo1
Germination 15 days 20 days No No No
Drying 3 days 5 days No No No
Milling Yes Yes No No No
Güiñapo/water rate (kg/L) Not informed 1/33 1/20 1/16 1/18
Boiling (h) 3 1 1 1 3
Filtration Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Fermentation Overnight with addition of sugar Overnight with addition of sugar 12 h 12 h 4–5 h with addition of sugar
Starter Chicha from the previous day Chicha from the previous day Chicha from the previous day Chicha from the previous day Chicha from the previous day
Additional ingredients after fermentation Sugar4 None2 Sugar3 Sugar3 Sugar4
  1. 1Milled and partially germinated purple corn kernels
  2. 2Sugar added at the beginning of the fermentation
  3. 3Sugar added at the end of the fermentation
  4. 4Sugar added at the beginning and the end of the fermentation