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Table 3 Differences among animal slaughtering requirements in four halal standards

From: The multiplicity of halal standards: a case study of application to slaughterhouses

Criteria Halal standard
GSO 993:2015 OIC/SMIIC 1:2019 HAS 23103:2012 MS 1500:2019
Slaughtering site, tools, utensils, devices, machinery
 The slaughterhouse productive site shall be effectively segregated and well insulated from pig farms or their processing activities to prevent contamination through personnel and equipment    × ×
 The closest pig farm, if present, has to be distant at least 5 km from the halal premises    ×  
 The slaughtering site shall be dedicated only to halal animals and halal slaughter   ×   
 Slaughtering lines, food grade tools and utensils shall be clean and used for the purpose of halal slaughter only × × × ×
 Slaughtering tools used for cutting shall be sharp and free from blood and other impurities × × × ×
 Slaughtering tools shall cut by sharpness of their edge, not by weight or pressure × ×   
 Bones, nails and teeth shall not be used as slaughtering tools × × × ×
 Slaughtering tools shall be free and not from any materials which are categorized as najs or haram × × × ×
 Devices, utensils, machines and processing aids which were previously used or in contact with najs al-mughallazah shall be washed and ritually cleansed   × × ×
 In the case of converting najs al-mughallazah processing line into halal production line, the line shall be washed and ritually cleansed. This procedure shall be supervised and verified by the competent authority. Upon conversion, the line shall be operated for halal food only. Alternate conversion of the najs al-mughallazah line to halal line and back shall not be permitted   × × ×
Permitted animals
Halal animals × × × ×
 The animal must be alive or deemed to be alive before slaughtered × × × ×
 The animal must be healthy (approved by a veterinary authority) and the principles of animal welfare must be respected × × × ×
 Stunning must not kill or cause a permanent physical injury to the animal × × × ×
 Stunning should be made only to reduce animal pain and make slaughtering easier × × × ×
 The stunned animal should be alive or deemed to be alive before slaughtering starts × × × ×
 The veterinary authority must supervise the stunning process   ×   ×
 Stunning tools must be free from any non-halal material × × × ×
 Stunning should follow specific instructions in terms of intensity (stunning type, duration, voltage, and position of stunner) × × × ×
 Stunning tools must be calibrated and validated periodically by the competent authority   × × ×
 The only permitted stunning methods for bovines are electrical or pneumatic percussive stunning (non-penetrative captive bolt stunning, ax/hammer, or air blowing) × × × ×
 The only permitted stunning method for poultry is electrical stunning (water-bath stunning)    × ×
 Stunning should be avoided except for violently resisting animals   ×   
Stunning operator
 The stunning operator must be skilled and pass the training conducted by halal certification bodies or other competent authorities    ×  
 Right before slaughtering the animals, the slaughterer shall utter “In the name of Allah” (tasmiyah “Bismillah”) and he shall not mention any name other than Allah, otherwise this will make meat non-halal × × × ×
 The slaughter act shall be done intentionally and in the name of Allah   ×   ×
 The slaughter act shall sever the trachea (halqum), esophagus (mari) and both the carotid arteries and two jugular veins (wadajain) to enhance the bleeding and death of the animals. The bleeding shall be spontaneous and complete × × × ×
 The slaughter act shall be done after having been raised the animal’s head or laid the animal on its left side facing the direction of Mecca (qibla) × × × ×
 Care shall be given to reduce animal pain while being raised or laid, without keeping it in that position for too long × × × ×
 Slaughtering shall be done only once × × × ×
 The “sawing action” of the slaughtering is permitted as long as the slaughtering knife or blade is not lifted by the animal during slaughter   ×   
 The slaughterer shall fully understand the fundamental Islamic rules and conditions related to the slaughter of animals   × × ×
 The slaughterer shall practice Islam as a good Muslim   × × ×
 The slaughterer can be either Muslim, or Jewish or Christian ×    
 The slaughterer shall be minimum 18 years old    × ×
 The slaughterer shall be healthy and mentally sound, as proven by medical record    × ×
 The slaughterer shall be certified by a competent halal authority × × × ×
 The number of slaughtermen who work per day shall be adequate to the number of animals being slaughtered    × ×
Halal supervisor
 The supervisor shall be minimum 18 years old    × ×
 The supervisor shall practice Islam as a good Muslim    × ×
 The supervisor shall pass a training by halal certification body or competent authority    × ×
 The supervisor shall ensure that the stunning process (if any) does not cause permanent physical injury or death; that the slaughtering process meets the halal requirements; that the animals are dead before further handling; that non-halal products are not mixed with halal products, either in chiller, deboning room, cold storage, and transportation; that appropriate records of all the activities are kept    × ×
 There must be an adequate number of supervisors per day, adjusted with the number of animals being slaughtered    × ×
 The supervisor is responsible for the effectiveness of the halal internal control system    ×  
Halal head checker
 The halal head checker must be a practicing Muslim and technically competent     ×
 The halal head checker must be trained and supervised by a halal certification body     ×
 The halal head checker must verify the halal carcass status by examining the level of damage    × ×
 The halal head checker must assess the skull damage after stunning and record for any non-compliance carcass    × ×
Halal checker
 The halal checker shall be minimum 18 years old     ×
 The halal checker shall be healthy and mentally sound, as proven by medical record     ×
 The halal checker shall practice Islam as a good Muslim     ×
 The halal checker must be trained and supervised by a halal certification body     ×
 The halal checker must check all the activities related with stunning and/or slaughtering     ×