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Table 2 Biochemical composition of different fermented fish products of Asia

From: Fermented fish products in South and Southeast Asian cuisine: indigenous technology processes, nutrient composition, and cultural significance

  Fermented product Country Fish species Process Nutrient composition References
1 Pedah Indonesia Mackerel (Rastrelliger neglectus) as raw material Salting is carried out using a 1:3 salt to fish ratio and fermentation time 2–3 months Parameter amount in 100 g sample
Moisture content: 46 (g)
Protein content (g): 28 g
Fat content (g): 4 g
Ca: 174 mg
P: 316 mg
Fe: 3.1 mg
[119]
2 Jeotgal Korea Various Engraulis japonicus (anchovy) and /or Ammodytes sp. Salt at the level of 20–30% Moisture content: 67.6%
Crude protein content: 7.4%
Crude fat content: 1.1%
Carbohydrate: 0.01%
pH: 6
[66]
3 Budu Thailand and Malaysia Sea water or brackish water fish Stolephorus indicus, Clupeoides sp., Sardinella sp., Anchoviella commersonii, and Anchoviella indica Salt: 19.4–20.6% Moisture content: 45–60.2%
Crude protein content: 12.1–13.2%
Crude fat content: 1.3–1.8%
Fiber: 0.2–0.4%
Ash: 21.6–23.2%
Acidity: 0.4–0.9%
pH: 5.4–6.5
[120, 121]
4 Nam-pla Thailand Anchoviella sp., Stolephorus sp., Rastrelliger sp., Cirrhinus sp. 5–12 months fermentation time 5:1 fish: salt Crude protein content: 4.62%
Moisture: 32.26%
Fat content: 0.80%
Lactic acid: 0.32%
pH: 5.3–6.7
[120, 121]
5 Plaa-som Thailand Snakehead fish, salt, palm syrup and sometimes roasted rice, Barbs Salt: 5.23–9.14% Crude protein content: 16.08–18.94%
Moisture: 62.2–67.72%
Fat content: 0.71–3.20%
Lactic acid: NF
pH: 4.3–5.3%
[121]
6 Belacan Malaysia Small shrimps of Acetes and Mysid varieties 1–2 months fermentation; salt: 13–25.3% Crude protein content: 28.7–40%
Moisture: 27–40%
Fat content: 1.4–2.6%
Ca: 2.0–3.4%
Fe: 0.02%
pH: 7.2–7.8%
[122]
7 Pekasam Malaysia Freshwater fish, tamarind and salt, marine fish is also used 2–4 weeks; salt: 10–16% Crude protein content: 15–25%
Moisture: 57–73%
Fat content: 3.0–8.0%
Lactic acid: 0.1–0.4%
Ash: 6–14%
pH: 4.5–6.1%
[122]
8 Trasi (Shrimp paste) Indonesia Shrimp 7 days salt: 23% Crude protein content: 25.89%
Moisture: 12.13%
Fat content: 3.8%
Ash: 32–46%
pH: 6.35–6.51%
[40]
9 Bekasam Indonesia Freshwater fish; common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linn.) cooked rice and sticky rice Fermentation time: 1 week; salt 5.72% Crude protein content: 4.81%
Moisture: 66.95%
Fat content: 14.25%
Ash: 5.76%
pH: 6.35–6.51%
[119]
10 Bagoong and Patis Philippines Stolephorus sp., Sardinella fimbriata and Decapterus sp. 1: 3 to 2: 7 (salt: fish) Bagoong takes smaller time and prolonged fermentation of Bagoong results in Patis fish sauce Total nitrogen: 2.26%
Formol nitrogen: 1.31%
Ammonia nitrogen: 0.31%
Sodium chloride: 26.10%
pH: 5.85% lactic acid content: 0.84%
[123]
11 Balao-balao Philippines (Penaeus indicus or Macrobrachium sp.), adding salt (20% based on the shrimp weight) 1: 4.8 (weight of unsalted shrimp to rice). Salt (3%) is mixed thoroughly before the mixture is packed in wide mouth glass jars. The mixture is allowed to ferment for 7 to 10 days at 28 °C pH: 7.52–3.80
Volatile acid (as acetic acid): 0.03–0.1%
Titratable acidity (as lactic acid): 0.12–2.0%
[123]
12 Sikhae Korea Lactic acid fermented fish or clam meat in mixture of glutinous rice and salt 2–3 weeks of fermentation; low salt 2% Organic acids- lactic acid, succinic acid and acetic acid
NH2–N: 127 mg/100 g
NH2–N: 127 mg/100 g
VBN: 27.0 mg/100 g
pH 5.0–4.6
[102, 124]
13 Ngapi Myanmar Fish, shrimp Pounding or grinding of fish or shrimp with some salt; salt 22% Moisture: 7.6%
Protein: 41.9%
Fat: 8.4%
NaCl: 37.95%
Free ammonia: 0.17%
Ash: 3.45%
Sand: 0.5%
[58]
14 Ngari India Puntius sophore and Puntius ticto 5–6 months Moisture: 36.03%
Total lipid: 13.34%
Ash: 5.49
pH: 6.74
Water soluble nitrogen: 3.62%
Free fatty acid-97.60%
[116]
15 Hentak India Esomus danricus and Alocasia macrorrhizos Fermented fish paste, used as condiment or curry Moisture: 20.9%
Crude protein: 52.86%
Crude fat: 17.10%
Ash: 8.10%
Free fatty acid (as oleic acid): 39.6%
pH: 6.6
Non protein nitrogen: 1.1%
Total volatile base nitrogen: 99.85 mg%
[117]
16 Shidal India and Bangladesh Puntius sophore and Setipinna phasa Semi-fermented, unsalted product; 4–6 months fermentation; curry/pickle Protein: 27.2–38.35%
pH: 6.1–6.2
Moisture content: 33.44–37.52%
[125]
17 Shottsuru (Fish sauce) Japan Anchovy, opossum shrimp, salt Salt conc.: 26.2–30.4%,
pH: 4.54–5.56
Total nitrogen: 301–1598 mg/100 ml
VBN: 36.2–170 mg/100 m
[126]
18 Tungtap India Puntius sp. and Danio sp. Dried fish are kept inside the vessel to ferment NR [51]
  1. NR not reported