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Table 1 The findings

From: Dynamics of indigenous community’s food and culture in the time of climate change in the Himalayan region

Author(s) Country/city Sample size Methodology Key findings
Bhattarai et al. [13] Nepal Local farmer (n = 91), Focus Group Discussion (FGD) (n = 4, 10–12 participants) Case studies, in-depth interviews, FGD, and participant’s observation Gender inequality due to socio-structural norms; undermines the climate change adaptation
Khan et al. [14] Pakistan Local communities (n = 120, 87 male and 33 female) In-depth interviews Lack of awareness of ethnobotanical plants; results in the careless use of natural resources
Salick et al. [15] Tibet, China Sample size (Not mentioned) Ethnobotanical method and qualitative in-depth interviews The severe impact of climatic change on the livelihood, lifestyle, and traditional Tibetan culture of herding of animals
Byg and Salick [16] Tibet, China Indigenous communities (n = 90, 45 female and 45 male) Semi-structured interviews Localized meaning of climate change based on socio-cultural, spiritual, and moral factors
Gómez-Baggethun et al. [17] Spain Local people (n = 33), FGD (n = 3, 4–6 individuals) Interviews, FGD, and systematic reviews of historical archives Traditional beliefs systems associated with socio-ecological knowledge are crucial for a sustainable long-term solution
Von Borgstede et al. [18] Sweden, US, UK, and Japan Opinion poll (n = 1500) in 2005 (n = 742) and 2010 (n = 615) The longitudinal survey, opinion poll, close-ended questionnaires Climate change is the reality; sustainable environmental friendly consumption choices possible solution
Semenza et al. [19] Portland and Houston Participants (n = 1202, female = 787 and male = 415) Mixed methodology The negligence of socio-structural norms; barriers in climate mitigation efforts
Gentle and Maraseni [20] Nepal Local household (n = 485) In-depth interviews, FGD, key informants interviews Social inequalities and inequity in resource allocation due to climate change; affecting vulnerable communities
Vedwan [21] Himachal Pradesh, India Apple growers (n = 58) Semi-structured interviews Shift in traditional cropping pattern due to climate change in the Himalayan region
Chaudhary and Bawa [22] India and Nepal Households (n = 225) In-depth interviews, focus group discussion The shift in agricultural practices of indigenous communities. For example, apple production has severely been affected
Katwal et al. [23] Bhutan Indigenous farmers (n = 404, male = 237, and female = 167) Survey with close-ended questionnaires The loss of one-third of traditional agrobiodiversity in the region; emphasis on adoption of crops according to different agro-ecological zones
Oo et al. [24] Myanmar Local farmers (n = 178), FGD (n = 7) In-depth interviews, FGD Poor socio-economic status negatively affects the adaptation policies in society
Bhadwal et al. [25] Sikkim, India Local communities FGD (n = 8) In-depth interviews, FGD Gender norms in traditional communities affect adaptation; due to lack of access to human, financial, and natural capitals
Guyot et al. [26] Canada Aboriginal communities (n = 2) In-depth interviews, FGD Impact of climate change on traditional dietary practices and consumption
Ford [27] Canada Nunavut community In-depth interviews, FGD Impact of climate change on traditional dietary practices
Upadhaya et al. [28] Meghalaya, India Tribal community (n = 2) In-depth interviews, FGD Traditional agriculture practice could result in sustainable consumption and environment
Pieniak et al. [29] Europe Consumer survey (n = 4828) Cross-sectional quantitative survey Traditional food consumption depends on familiarity, naturalness, and health benefits
Rojas-Rivas et al. [30] Mexico City Consumer survey (n = 610) In-depth interviews The association of traditional norms positively influence the dietary habits
Akintan et al. [31] Nigeria The household survey (n = 350) Household surveys, semi-structured interviews ‘Ethnic-specific’ traditional norms and taboos crucial in food choices of traditional society
Chakraborty et al. [32] Uttarakhand, India Local households (n = 62) Household surveys, semi-structured interviews Socio-cultural norms are significant sustainable environment and dietary choices
Malhotra et al. [33] Himachal Pradesh, India Local people (n = 20), FGD (n = 3) In-depth interviews, FGD Socio-ecological changes and affected the cultural norms linked to eating practices
Singh et al. [34] Kashmir, India Native people (n = 113) Household surveys, interviews, semi-structured interviews Ethnobotanical knowledge is crucial for novel nutraceutical products
Nautiyal and Kaechele [35] India Sample size (not mentioned) Household surveys, semi-structured interviews Traditional mountain farming is sustainable for the environment and indigenous societies
Negi and Maikhuri [36] Uttarakhand, India Local villages (n = 62, sample size not mentioned) Household surveys, semi-structured interviews, in-depth interviews Traditional agro diversity is insurance against disease and extreme climatic fluctuations