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Table 2 Climatic variabilities and cultural changes

From: Dynamics of indigenous community’s food and culture in the time of climate change in the Himalayan region

Climatic risks Impact on diets Cultural impacts
Drought The practice of rotational cropping and the cultivation of various types of livestock for maintaining the different grazing habits that reduce the chances of disease to cattle are under threat [36] The indigenous nomadic communities consider pastoralism was an integral part of their socio-cultural norms. Since climate change makes it difficult to follow the traditional way of cattle rearing, the cultural concept of pastoralism is vanishing due to shifts in social structures as the younger generation exit from shepherding
Rising temperature The shift in the apple belt towards higher elevations results from global climatic change and local environmental change in the Himalayan regions [63] The psychological and spiritual emotions attached to the fruits have significantly affected
Erratic rainfall Erratic rainfall patterns have affected the fish spawn availability in river Ganga [64] The climatic variability impacts fish availability, which has led to a decline of ecological and socio-cultural importance attached to local fisheries in the Gangetic plains
Melting of ice Narwhal, ringed seals, arctic char, and caribou are the mainstays of the wildlife harvest in Arctic Bay, but climate change has affected the consumption and availability of traditional food [65] The difficulty of inaccessibility has resulted in modifying the consumption of traditionally significant food among the indigenous community. Since local food has importance in socio-cultural and economic activities in a traditional society thus, hunting seals is not only the means of food but also a way of life. Therefore, the change in seal-hunting has an impact on the culture of the traditional Inuit communities
Extreme climatic conditions The traditional dietary practices have changed, such as consumptions of locally produce pluses like Madua and Kala bhatt have shifted in the Himalayan region [66] On special occasions like marriage and birth ceremonies, rituals are followed, where unique cuisines are prepared. Still, the ritual ceremonies and festival ceremonies have also been affected due to the lesser availability of traditional food