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Table 4 Coffee consumption habits of participants

From: The consumption of tea and coffee in Turkey and emerging new trends

  Adana İzmir
F % F %
Consumption frequency     
Never 11 2.3 2 0.6
Once in a month 45 9.6 18 5.3
Once/a few weeks 240 51.4 102 30.1
1–5 cups per day 161 34.5 184 54.3
6–10 cups per day 6 1.3 25 7.4
More than 10 cups per day 4 0.9 8 2.4
Total 467 100 339 100
Pearson χ2: 69.422, s.d.:5, p: 0.000 < 0.05     
Consumption venue     
Home 209 45.0 111 32.7
Coffee shops 131 28.2 126 37.2
Trip/Picnic 7 1.5 1 0.3
Workplace 67 14.4 75 22.1
Beach 3 0.6 2 0.6
Social surroundings 41 8.8 16 4.7
Travel 7 1.5 8 2.4
Total 465 100 339 100
Pearson χ2: 27.214, s.d.:6, p: 0.000 < 0.05     
Coffee consumption in home     
Turkish coffee 378 81.3 175 51.6
Espresso 6 1.3 2 0.6
Filter coffee 19 4.1 40 11.8
Decaf coffee 3 0.6 1 0.3
Instant coffee 29 6.2 109 32.1
Mocha 4 0.9 1 0.3
Americano 7 1.5 0 -
Latte 13 2.8 4 1.2
Macchiato 1 0.2 3 0.9
Frappuccino 0 - 2 0.6
Cappuccino 5 1.1 2 0.6
Total 465 100 339 100
Pearson χ2: 133.508, s.d.:11, p: 0.000 < 0.05     
Consumption time     
Morning 131 28.2 64 18.9
Mid-morning 26 5.6 22 6.5
Noon 99 21.3 140 41,3
Evening 156 33.5 92 27.1
Mid-afternoon 32 6.9 9 2.7
Night 21 4.5 12 3.5
Total 465 100 339 100
Pearson χ2: 43.585, s.d.:5, p: 0.000 < 0.05     
Coffee density     
Light and soft 55 11.8 59 17.4
Medium and balanced 351 75.3 210 61.9
Dense and hard 60 12.9 70 20.6
Total 466 100 339 100
Pearson χ2: 16.728, s.d.:2, p: 0.000 < 0.05     
Roasting degree     
Lightly roasted 49 10.6 54 15.9
Moderate roasted 364 79.0 220 64.9
Dark roasted 48 10.4 65 19.2
Total 461 100 339 100
Pearson χ2: 20.171, s.d.:2, p: 0.000 < 0.05     
Coffee consumption in outdoors     
Turkish coffee 307 66.1 161 47.5
Espresso 4 0.9 20 5.9
Filter coffee 37 8.0 51 15.0
Decaf coffee 2 0.4 6 1.8
Instant coffee 20 4.3 14 4.1
Mocha 16 3.4 5 1.5
Americano 9 2.0 25 7.4
Latte 43 9.2 25 7.4
Macchiato 9 2.0 10 2.9
Frappuccino 4 0.9 7 2.1
Cappuccino 13 2.8 15 4.4
Total 464 100 339 100
Pearson χ2: 63.380, s.d.:11, p: 0.000 < 0.05