Skip to main content

Table 6 Pharmacological potential of S. androgynus

From: Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr.: a multipurpose plant with multiple uses in traditional ethnic culinary and ethnomedicinal preparations

Activity Part used; Extract; Application; Animal/cell lines Animal model/In vitro study (Dose); Reference control; Activity (Reference) Toxicity References
Antibacterial activity Leaf; ethanol extract; i.p. administration; vannamei shrimp larvae (0.01 g) Vibrio sp.; 600, 800, 1000, 1200 ppm of Sauropus leaf extract; w/o reference NA [43]
Leaf; ethanol and aqueous; Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus Disc diffusion method; 0.04 mg/ml; gentamicin NA [188]
Leaf; aqueous, ethanol and methanol; Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, S. typhimurium Disc diffusion method; Streptomycin NA [49]
Stem; methanol; Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Edwardsiella tarda, Flavobacterium sp., Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio alginolyticus, V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus Broth microdilution method; 1 mg/ml NA [129]
Callus and leaf; methanol; E. coli, B. subtilis, S. aureus, S. typhi Disc diffusion method NA [223]
Antioxidant activity Leaf; ethanol; intraperitoneal injection (i.p.); male Wistar rats (seven weeks old) Dissolved in 0.5 to 1.0 mg Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) /kg/day; CoQ10 supplement Safe up to 1.0 mg CoQ 10/kg/day [42]
Chlorophyll extract in methanol:acetone; oral; Wistar albino rats (150–200 g) NaNO2 induced oxidative stress; 0.016 mg/ml and 0.008 mg/ml; Cu-chlorophyllin (0.008 mg/ml) NA [224]
Galactagogue activity Leaf; aqueous; oral administration; Wistar rats Lactating rats; 26.25, 52.5 and 105 mg/kg/day; domperidone (2.7 mg/kg/day); distilled water Safe up to 105 mg/kg/day [40]
Leaf; ethanol; oral administration; Etawah goat (38.19 ± 2.4 kg) Concentrate containing katuk leaf flour and bio complex Zn flour; w/o reference NA [204]
Digestibility Leaf; oral administration; Friesian Holstein cattle (300–450 kg) 155 g katuk leaf and 15% of Gamal leaves; w/o reference NA [41]
Hepatic necrosis Leaf; ethanol; i.p. administration; BALB/c mice (20–25 g) E. coli- infected pregnant mice model; 37.5, 75, 50, 112.5, 150 mg/kg SA extract with E. scaber extract; w/o reference Safe up to the mentioned concentration [190]
Iron deficiency anaemia Leaf; ethanol; oral administration; female Wistar strain rats (190–220 g) Iron deficient diet; 300 mg/day; w/o reference Safe up to 300 mg/g [39]
Leaf methanol; acetone extract; oral; Female mice, Balb-c Sodium nitrile induced anaemia; Cu-chlorophyllin (13.29, 11.83, 14.54, 13.99 g/dl) NA [215]
Leaf; methanol: acetone; IDA female rats (150–200 g) Iron deficient diet for 14 days; 0.016 mg/mL; commercial chlorophyll (0.016 mg/mL) Safe up to 0.016 mg/ml [25]
Teratogenic effects Leaf; methanol; i.p. administration; Zebrafish 10, 100, 1000 mg/mL leaf extract and 1% dimethyl sulfoxide; w/o reference Safe up to 1000 mg/mL [225]
Leaf powder; oral; Hainan in rats Pregnant mice; 0, 250, 500, 1000 mg/kg NA [226]
Antidiabetic activity Leaf; ethanol; i.p. administration; Wistar albino rats; (180–220 g) Alloxan induced diabetes; 200 and 400 mg/kg; glibenclamide (10 mg/kg) Safe up to 400 mg/kg [52]
Leaf; acetone, methanol (7:3); oral; Wistar rats (150–200 g) Streptomycin induced diabetes; 0.016 mg/mL chlorophyll extract; glibenclamide (0,09 mg/200) 0.016 mg/mL concentration of chlorophyll extract was low toxic to the internal organs of rats [25]
Leaf; methanol; oral; mice Alloxan induced diabetes; 250 mg/ kg and 500 mg/kg; glibenclamide (2.5 mg/kg) Non-toxic up to 500 mg/kg [185]
Anticancer activity Leaf; ethanol; breast cancer cell line breast cancer (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay; 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 µg/ml Safe up to 100 µg/ml [22]
Antiinflammatory activity Leaf; ethanol; ip; albino mice (20–25 g) Carrageenan induced rat paw edema; 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg BW; Phenylbutazone (100 mg/kg bw) Nontoxic up to 400 mg/kg [47]
Leaf (S. brevipes); ethanol; oral; mice Lipopolysaccharide induced peritonitis; 200 mg/kg; Ranitidine (40 mg/kg) Nontoxic up to 200 mg/kg [197]
Leaves; aqueous protein extract; erythrocytes Hypotonic solution-induced hemolysis; 10, 25, 50, 100 μg/mL; acetylsalcylic acid (100 μg) NA [60]
Leaf; ethanol; transdermal; male Wistar rat Carrageenan induced; 400 mg / kg BW NA [227]
Anti-obesity activity Leaf; ethanol; oral; white male rat (200–300 g) High fat diet; 50, 75, 100 mg/kg bw; Orlistat and metformin Nontoxic up to 100 mg/kg [201]
Anti-alopecia activity Leaf; ethanol; topical; male rabbit (1.5–2 kg) Hair length measurement; Minoxidil (2%) NA [167]