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Table 1 Geographical distribution of ethnic fermented foods and beverages in the Himalayas

From: Dietary culture and antiquity of the Himalayan fermented foods and alcoholic fermented beverages

Substrates Product characters Himalayas
Western Central Eastern
Local names of fermented products (countries/states/regions)
(A) Plant-based Himalayan fermented foods
Soybean Alkaline, sticky, solid Not produced Not produced Aagya (AP), Axone/Aakhonii (N), Bari (B), Bekang (Mz), Bemerthu (A), Bekanthu (A), Bezeithu (T), Chukchoro, Grep chhurpi/Lipi chhurpi (AP), Hakhu mata Mn), Hawaijar (Mn), Khuichang (Mn), Kinema (Dj, S, EN, B), Penam (AP), Peruñyaan (AP), Peron Piak (AP), Paeha/peha (AP), Pintop panau (AP), Satlyangser (S), Tho-nao (AP), Tungrymbai (Mg)
Non-soybean legumes Slightly acidic, solid Borhe (HP), Dangalbari (HP), Maseura (WN), Mashbari (HP), Papad (HP), Sepubari (HP), Wari/bari (HP, U) Maseura (WN) Maseura (Dj, S)
Cereal Fermented dough, baked, fried Aska (HP), Babru (HP), Bagpinni (HP), Bhatooru (HP), Bhatabaru (HP), Chilra (HP), Chzot/Girda (JK), Czochwor (JK), Gulgule (HP), Jalebi (HP, U, WN), Khambir (L), Lawaas (JK), Marchu (HP), Nan (HP), Pakk (HP), Selroti (WN), Siddu (HP), Seera (HP), Tchog (HP) Jalebi (CN), Selroti (CN) Jalebi (EN. Dj, S), Selroti (EN, Dj, S, B)
Vegetable Acidic, sour taste, sun-dried Gundruk (WN), Sinki (WN) Gundruk (CN), Sinki (CN) Ankamthu (Mz), Anishi (N), Antramthu (A), Bastanga (N), Cutocie (N), Ganang tamdui, (Mn, N), Gundruk (EN, Dj, S, A, B), Goyang (S), Hungrii (N), Inziangsang and Inziang-dui (Mn, N), Kahudi and Kharoli (A), Khalpi EN, Dj, S, B), Panitenga (A), Sinki (EN, Dj, S, B), Ziangsang (Mn, N)
Bamboo Acidic, sour taste, fresh or sun-dried Not produced Mesu (CN) Bastanga (N), Ekung, Eup and Hirring (AP), Khorisa (A), Lung-siej (Mg), Mesu (EN, Dj, S, B), Miya mikhri (A), Moiya pangsung or moiya koshak (T), Soibum, Soijim or soijin and Soidon (Mn), Thunkhiang/Thunkheng(A, Mn), Tuai-um (Mz), Thunbin (Mn), Tuaithur (A)
(B) Animal-based Himalayan fermented foods
Milk Acidic, savoury Dahi (WH), Chhura (L), Chura loenpa (TAR), Kalari (JK), Kurut (TAR), Lassi (WH), Mar (L), Mohi, Phuh (JK), Qula (TAR), Tara (L), Zamuthdod (JK) Dahi (CN), Lassi (CN), Mohi (CN) Dahi (EN, Dj, S, B, A, AP), Chhu (Dj, S), Chhurpi (EN, Dj, S, B, AP), Charka (AP), Chhur chirpen (AP), Chhur singba/chhur mingba (AP), Churkam (B), Chhurpupu/Churtang (AP), Dahi, Shedan (S, B), Datshi (B), Maa/MorMohi (EN, Dj, S, B), Marchang (AP), Philu (S), Phrung (AP), Shyow (S, B), Somar (Dj, S),
Fish Fermented or traditionally preserved, sun-dried, smoked, or salted Sidra, Suka ko maacha, and Sukuti (WN) Sidra, Suka ko maacha, and Sukuti (CN) Ayaiba (Mn), Bordia (A), Chucha (A), Gnuchi (Dj, S), Godak (T), Hidal (A), Hukoti (A), Hentak (Mn), Ithiitongba (Mn), Karati (A), Lashim (A), Lona Illis (T), Mio (AP), Naduba siyan, Nah-grain and Namsing (A), Naakangba (Mn, N), Ngiiyi-yaan (AP), Ngari (M), Sepaa and Sheedal (T), Sidra, Suka ko maacha, and Sukuti (EN, Dj, S, B), Tungtap (Mg)
Meat Fermented or traditionally preserved, sun-dried, smoked, or sausage-like products Arjia (U, HP), Chartayshya (U, HP), Jamma (U, HP), Kheuri, Lang kargyong (L), Lang chilu L), Shekwa (WN), Suka ko masu (WN), Yak kargyong and yak kheuri (L) Sukako ko masu (CN), Shekwa (CN) Ashikumna/Thevochie (N), Bagjinam (N), Bongkarot and Bongthu (Mn), Dingkyo (AP), Faak kargyong (Dj, S), Gwag ruum and Guaighi kang (Mn), Honoheingrain (A), Jang kap (N), Kargyong, Kheuri, Khyopeh (S), Lang kargyong (Dj, S, B), Lang satchu (Dj, S, B), Lang chilu and Luk chilu (S, B), Lang kheuri (S, B), Lukter (AP), Pikey Pila (AP),Saayung, Sahro and Sathu (Mn), Sa-um (Mz), Shekwa (EN), Suka ko masu (EN, Dj, S, B), Yak chilu, Yak kargyong, Yak kheuri and Yak satchu (S, B)
(C) Himalayan amylolytic starters and alcoholic fermented beverages
Non-eatable, cereal-based starter culture Artisan, amylolytic, solid, dry, ball or oval or flattened, starter cultures (consortia of mycelial moulds, yeasts and bacteria) Bakhar (U, HP), Balan (U, HP), Dhehli (HP), Keem Khai (U, HP), Malera/treh (HP), Marcha, manapu and mana (WN), Phab (L) Marcha, manapu and mana (CN) Angkur (A), Apop pitha (A), Bhekur-pitha (A), Chamri (Mn), Chang-poo or phab (B) Chowan (T), Dabai, Dawdim (Mz), Dhehli, Emao (A), Hamei (Mn), Humao (A), Ipoh/Siye (AP), Khai (Mn, N), Khekhrii (T), Marcha (EN, Dj, S, B), Modor pitha (A), Opop (AP), Phab (B, AP), Phut, Paa and Pee (AP), Thap (A), Thiat (Mg), Xaaz/Xaj pitha (A)
Alcoholic fermented beverages Cereals (rice, finger millets, maize, barley, wheat)-based mild, sweet, alcoholic beverages Ayela (WN), Angoori or kinnauri (HP), Ark/ara (HP), Chyang (L), Buza (L), Chulli (HP), Chhind, Daru (HP), Ghanti (HP), Jann (U, HP),, Khor, Kodo ko jaanr (WN), Lugri (HP), Pachwai (U, HP), Rak (HP), Raksi (WN), Sez (U), Soora/Sura (HP) Ayela (CN), Bhaati jaanr (CN), Kodo ko jaanr (CN), Makai ko jaanr (CN), Simal tarul ko jaanr (CN), Raksi (CN) Acham (Mn), Ahom (A), Aarak or Hor-Alank (A), Aitanga (Mn), Apong (A, AP), Aara (AP), Bhaati jaanr (EN, Dj, S, B), Buza, Chakti, Chulli, Chyang (EN, Dj, S, B, AP), Chee (S), Chhind, Dekuijao and Duizou (N), Ennog (AP), Faapar ko jaanr (EN, Dj, S), Gahoon ko jaanr (EN, Dj, S), Haria (A), Jou (N), Judima (A), Juharo and Juhning (A), Kiad (Mg), Khor (Mn), Kodo ko jaanr (CN, Dj, S, B), Langi (T), Laopani (A), Madhu(N), Makai ko jaanr (EN, Dj, S, B), Mingari (AP), Nchiangne and Nduijao (N), Nyongin (AP), Oa (AP), Opo (AP), Patso (Mn), Pheijou (Mn), Pona (AP), Raksi (EN, Dj, S, B), Rakzu (Mz), Ruhi (N), Simal tarul ko jaanr (EN, Dj, S), Sira-Oa (AP), Themsing (AP), Timpui (Mn), Tin-zu (Mz), Toddy (A), Xaj pani/koloh pani (A), Waiyu (Mn), Yu (Mn), Yu angouba (Mn), Zoungao (Mn, N), Zouju/zouzu (Mn, N), Zu (A), Zutho (N), Zupui (Mz), Zufang (Mz)
Fermented tea     Pu-erh tea (Tibet in China)
  1. A, Assam; AP, Arunachal Pradesh; B, Bhutan, CN, Central Nepal; Dj, Darjeeling; EN, Eastern Nepal; HP, Himachal Pradesh; JK, Jammu and Kashmir; L, Ladakh; Mg, Meghalaya; Mn, Manipur, Mz, Mizoram; N, Nagaland; S, Sikkim; T, Tripura; TAR, Tibetan Autonomous Regions in China; U, Uttarakhand; WH, Western Himalayas; WN, Western Nepal