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Table 1 Summary table of the literature reviewed

From: Dietary practices and gender dynamics: understanding the role of women

Themes Major ideas Description Authors
Food choice Important factors Psychological, cultural, genetic, and biological factors are also significant. Dietary habits are influenced by the norms, values, and beliefs of the communities. [14, 15]
Food security Availability, accessibility, quality, and stability are the four dimension of food security. [16,17,18]
Dietary shifts Societal norms and beliefs are the critical factors at the macro level. Geopolitics and economics are also responsible for the shift in dietary patterns. [19,20,21,22,23,24]
Power dynamics At the micro level, i.e., at the household level, gender-defined roles are critical from seed selection and preservation, threshing, cleaning and harvesting of crops, maintaining livestock, and planting vegetables in kitchen gardens household level. [25,26,27]
Gender Discrimination Girls and women are very often discriminated due to prevailing customary beliefs that are more inclined toward male members in a family. Gender is an essential factor in traditional society for making the choice of food. [28, 29]
Contradictions Very often, cultural norms prevail over medical norms due to customary beliefs and misbeliefs. [30, 31]
Pregnancy For a certain period of time, pregnant women are told to avoid certain kinds of food and vegetables. Most of the time, the cultural norms are against modern practices. [32, 33]
Difference in beliefs The consumption of alcoholic beverages has a special place in Sikkim, unlike other parts of India. [34, 35]
Inequality Nutritional insecurity, especially at the time of food scarcity. Women face discrimination because of prevailing gendered defined roles and cultural construct. [36,37,38]
Role of institutions Institutions like family and marriage favorable to the male member of a community. [39, 40]
Gender-based food For example, black soybean. Due to the beliefs that it is inferior in quality, hence served to females for some time. [41,42,43]
Loss of traditional knowledge Women suffer the most due to the loss of indigenous and traditional knowledge of dietary habits. [44,45,46,47]
Traditional food The customary dietary habits and foods are significant. [48,49,50]
Taboos in fishing In Southern parts of India, fishing by women is not considered good. [51]