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Table 2 Recent studies on exploring pulque and its by-products as new feedstock in new processes and products

From: Exploring the potentialities of the Mexican fermented beverage: Pulque

Product/by-product Research aim Remarks of the study References
Pulque sediments (xaxtle) Evaluation of pulque sediments as an additive to obtain baking products with low glycemic index – Optimal amount of sediments added to bread increased acidity, influencing the structural changes and the content of available starch
– Sediments decreased the glycemic index of bread
[61]
Starch pulque Evaluation and optimization of the starch-pulque mixture as wall material during spray-drying of Lactobacillus pentosus – The spray-drying process was effective for the encapsulation with a high encapsulation efficiency, reaching 98%
– Encapsulation offered greater protection to the cell when exposed to high concentrations of bile salts
[58]
Pulque Study of properties of dough and their characteristics in bread using pulque as leavening agent Pulque provided similar effects to those commercial leavening agents
Pulque has improved textural and microstructural features in bread, e.g. reduced apparent viscosity and elasticity
[62]
Sediments, liquid and freeze-dried pulque Study of phytase contained in pulque and its in vitro effects on corn tortilla – Several nutrients were quantified, and in vitro experiments revealed, that phytase contained in pulque, liberates the covalently bound phosphate groups of corn tortillas phytate from the inositol ring, as well as the trace elements chelated to them, increasing the bioavailability of nutrients contained in the tortilla [63]
Pulque leaf fibers Preparation and characterization of a polypropylene composite with pulque (Agave cantala) leaf fibers – The treated fibers appeared to be rougher, more thermal stable and with higher values of elastic modulus than other composite systems [65]