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Table 2 Tortilla production at the different marketplaces before and during the COVID-19 pandemic

From: Gender inequalities in the sale of handmade corn tortillas in central Mexican markets: before and during the COVID-19 pandemic

Marketplace
Process La Placita Travelling Tianguis Municipality market
Before pandemic period
Type of maize used Mainly native Native and hybrids Only hybrid
Access to maize Mostly from own cultivation Mostly locally bought Bought at wholesale stores
Place of preparation At home On the street At the store
Sale location Sidewalk and street corners On the street At the store
Production process Nixtamal, local semi-industrial milling, tortilla press, steel comal and wood stove (photo 1) Nixtamal, local semi-industrial milling, tortilla press, round steel comal and gas stove (photo 2) Nixtamal, local semi-industrial milling, tortilla press, rectangular steel comal integrated into a gas stove (photo 3)
Types of tortillas White, blue, occasionally pink (with or without whole wheat flour) White, blue, occasionally pink and yellow (with or without whole wheat flour) White, blue (with or without corn flour)
Characteristics of the tortilla Big and thick (18 cm diameter, 40 g) Regular artisanal (16 cm diameter, 35 g) Regular standard (15 cm diameter, 33 g)
Sales format Dozen Dozen or weight Mainly weight
Sales price by format in August 2018 Warm and retail purchase: 0.66 USD
Cold and wholesale purchase: 0.50 USD
Dozen, freshly made, and retail purchase: 0.66
0.85 USD per kg
Freshly made, retail purchase: 0.70 to 0.80 USD per kg
Sales volume 35 kg per week 45–50 kg per day 150–200 kg per week
Type of consumers Local and intermediary consumers Local and regional consumers Local consumers
Jobs created 85% of sellers employ one female helper
The remaining ones employ 2 or 3 people
60% of sellers employ two women
40% employs 3 or 4 people
40% of sellers employ 2 people
60% employ 3 people
Beginning pandemic
Sale price by format in the year 2020 0.86 USD a dozen. Warm, retail price 0.72 USD a dozen. Retail freshly made
0.86 to 0.96 USD per kg
0.86 to 0.96 USD per kg. Retail, freshly made
Sales volume 50 kg per week 100 kg per week
Type of consumers Local consumers   Local consumers
Pandemic COVID-19 situation Enabled without restrictions: increase in sales and 50% reduction in the number of women selling them Disabled Enabled during the red code, but with reduction in sales. Loss of employment and increase risk of business closure due to elevated cost of renting premises y administrative expenses