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Table 2 Mapping of ethnic foods in the Sierra Norte de Puebla. Some foods, as well as several wild edible plants were particularly important during the COVID-19 pandemic in the region

From: Looking into the past to build the future: food, memory, and identity in the indigenous societies of Puebla, Mexico

Ethnic food Municipality Ethnicity Method of preparation Observations
Banana-tortilla Hueytamalco Nahua Two ingredients are used in its preparation: green banana and maize dough* The banana-tortilla is an adaptation strategy for the municipality. It is rescued in situations of vulnerability, such as the COVID-19 pandemic
Mafafa San Juan Ahuacatlán Nahua En its preparation avocado, sesame or epazote leaves are used This edible plant was rescued by the municipality's elderly due to the COVID-19 pandemic
Kilhxtik Olintla Totonac Two ingredients are used in its preparation: Kilhxtik leaves and maize dough This edible plant was considered a weed with the COVID-19 pandemic and was rescued and is now used to make tortillas and tamales
Tapixnuna Xkutna Olintla Totonac With this plant, an ethnic sauce is elaborated that takes in its preparation: pieces of Tapixnuna Xkutna, chili, garlic and onion Edible plant that due to the sanitary measures of the COVID-19 pandemic replaced the tomato
Potro ma´anta Hueytlalpan Totonac Two ingredients are used in its preparation: donkey sweet potato bulb and chayote Edible plant that due to the sanitary measures of the COVID-19 pandemic, its consumption was intensified
Quelite de pisis Jópala Totonac In this edible plant, two parts are consumed: leaf and bulb. The method of preparation is boiled Edible plant that due to the sanitary measures of the COVID-19 pandemic was rescued for consumption
Makuil kilit Zoquiapan Nahua In this edible plant, the leaves are consumed, which are boiled Edible plant that due to the COVID-19 pandemic, its consumption was intensified
Tatanchichi Caxhuacan Totonac In this edible plant only, the fruit is consumed Edible plant that due to the COVID-19 pandemic was rescued for consumption
Chayote Huehuetla Totonac It is a vegetable that is consumed boiled Vegetable that due to the COVID-19 pandemic its consumption was intensified
Xakg Xanan Stapu Tepango de Rodriguez Totonac The feeding strategy has a double purpose to make use of the bean and the flower Beans are consumed daily by the population, but due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the flower was also rescued for consumption
Malla Capen Caxhuacan Totonac It is a legume, the pods are collected, dried and then roasted and ground. It is a substitute for coffee This bean is used as a substitute for coffee, its consumption has intensified due to sanitary measures of the COVID-19 pandemic
Pulak'la Tepango de Rodriguez Totonac The main ingredients are beans, chayote leaves, chili, sesame, banana leaves and maize dough The consumption of this traditional food is historical, and the pandemic has intensified its preparation in the municipality
  1. Maize-tortilla is made by a process of cooking native grain varieties with lime (nixtamalization) and cooking the tortilla when eaten, hot and fresh [89]