Tea culture and tea consumption in Turkey
Tea is the most popular drink consumed after water . China and India are regarded as the homeland of tea. From the sixteenth century onwards, it spread to European countries and from there to the rest of the world . Formerly considered a relaxing, enjoyable and warming beverage, tea has been associated with relaxation and clarity of mind . Turkey was the most tea-consuming country in the world with approximately 6.96 kilos in 2016. This figure is 1.25 kilos per person per year in China . Turkey ranks 7th in the world in terms of the size of tea cultivation land, 5th in dry tea production and 1st in per capita tea consumption in 2019. In 2020, 1.445.181 kg of fresh tea was processed and 280.000 tons of dry tea was obtained. Of the fresh tea, 46.75% by the private sector and 53.25% by the government-owned Çaykur was processed . Tea is grown on the coastline from the city of Rize to the Georgian border in the Black Sea region in the north of the country. Turkey's 2020 production period’s tea production areas are 66.4% in Rize, 20.3% in Trabzon, 10.8% in Artvin and 2.4% in Giresun . Many families in Turkey make a living from tea farming .
Turks met with tea in Central Asia before entering Anatolia in the eleventh century . Turkish people are known for their hospitality, and serving tea to guests is very common in Turkish culture. When considered together with its teapot, thin-waisted glass, teaspoon, saucer and brewing method, Turkish tea, which is the symbol of friendship and hospitality, has a traditional feature. In Turkey, the day starts with tea and ends with tea. Since Turks always offer tea to their guests, it is customary for every bride to have a guest tea set in her dowry. Tea is the main drink of Turkish-style breakfast. In addition, tea is as vital a function as drinking soup or eating bread for Turks .
Turks consume 65% of tea at home, 13% at work, 11% in hospitality, 5% in cafes, 4% in coffees and 2% in schools. In workplaces, there are tea vendors in charge of preparing tea and similar beverages, and there are “çay ocağı” (tea houses) in the bazaars and inns that serve drinks to the shops . In every province in Turkey, there are also “çay bahçesi” (tea gardens) where all non-alcoholic hot or cold drinks can be served, where you can read newspapers or books, meet friends to chat or play backgammon okey. Tradesmen usually offer a Turkish tea to every customer as a sign of friendship and hospitality, whether they sell something or not. Apart from the tea gardens where people sit down and get service, there are also tea houses where tea is made and distributed to the shops by one person, where there are sales shops and customers.
Turkish-style tea is brewed with ground roasted black tea in a teapot or samovar over continuous boiling water and served in small glasses known as distinctive thin waist (Fig. 1). The ideal ratio of tea pouring from the “demlik” (top of the teapot) to the glass and the hot water pouring from the kettle (bottom of the teapot) to the glass is described as “rabbit blood”. For children, the tea obtained by adding cold water to hot tea is called “pasha tea”, and the transition from “pasha tea” to “rabbit blood tea” symbolizes the transition from childhood to adulthood. If sugar is desired in the tea, it is added later while it is in the glass .
Turkish coffee culture and tradition
Although coffee culture is considered as a sub-category of culinary culture, it has its own tools, techniques, sociality, space, economy and identity . The homeland of coffee, which dates back to B.C 900, is known today as the geography of Ethiopia and Kenya. The invention of instant coffee in 1901, the first coffee machine in 1910, the first coffee grinder in the 1920s and the first automatic espresso machine in 1933 increased the coffee consumption all over the world . Coffee consumption is becoming widespread because of the effort to differentiate and classify itself with the effect of developing technology. Thus, coffee consumption is consumed both in brand coffee shops and with coffee machines that are becoming more common at home, or it can be buy take away . The consumption habits of individuals are shaped according to global culture; global coffee brands also structure their marketing and brand strategies by considering the consumption habits of the society .
Although coffee is not grown in Turkey, “Turkish coffee” is known worldwide for its unique cooking technique and presentation , and since 2013, “Turkish Coffee and Tradition” has been included on the Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity : “The tradition itself is a symbol of hospitality, friendship, refinement and entertainment that permeates all walks of life. An invitation for coffee among friends provides an opportunity for intimate talk and the sharing of daily concerns. Turkish coffee also plays an important role on social occasions such as engagement ceremonies and holidays; its knowledge and rituals are transmitted informally by family members through observation and participation. Turkish coffee is regarded as part of Turkish cultural heritage: it is celebrated in literature and songs, and is an indispensable part of ceremonial occasions”. The characteristics of Turkish coffee, which are stated in the international registration with UNESCO, meet the five basic criteria determined by the French for inscription of a gastronomic meal on the Representative List . Turkish coffee is a cultural value that has an identity handed down from generation to generation, contributes to mutual respect and intercultural dialogue, is promoted and protected, and registered in the intangible cultural heritage inventory.
In this way, “Turkish Coffee” has become one of Turkey's internationally registered brands. Turkish coffee, which is stated in various sources that its first use was started by the Ottomans in the early 1500s, became widespread during the reign of Sultan Suleiman, and the first coffeehouse was opened in Tahtakale area, Istanbul, in 1555  (Fig. 2). In Turkey, as in the cities, there is a village coffee house in every village where the people of the village gather, chat and play card games. Although everyone goes to the tea garden, women do not usually go to village coffee houses, except in the west of Turkey. There is also a strong link between coffee and cigarettes.
In ancient times, the elements used in the presentation of coffee ceremonies can be unique works of art (Fig. 3). The Turkish word for breakfast is derived from “kahve-altı”, meaning pre-coffee . Turkish coffee is prepared with high-quality moderately roasted Arabica coffee beans. Unlike the filter coffees traditionally consumed in the West, the desired foam Turkish coffee, which is extremely finely ground, is prepared by adding cold water and sugar to the “cezve” (coffee pot) and boiling it slowly on the stove . There is more than one “fincan” (cup) set in every house in Turkey, and fincan had no handles in traditional when first used until the nineteenth century. Handleless cups were served by putting them in sleeves called “zarf” (envelopes) in order not to burn hands. Coffee was roasted on the “kahve tavası” (coffee skillet) and ground fresh  (Fig. 3).
Coffee served with a glass of water and Turkish delight in a small glass is a symbol of hospitality, friendship, kindness and fun and is mostly drunk in coffee houses or homes where people meet to chat, share news and read books . For Turkish society, coffee has many meanings and ritual uses, which are explained below:
Fortune telling with coffee: After drinking the coffee, the remaining grounds in the cup are turned clockwise several times and the saucer is covered and turned upside down. After it has cooled completely, the shapes formed by the grounds in both the cup and the plate are interpreted by fortune-tellers (interpreters) or friends. It is left on a wedding ring or other gold ring to allow the cup to cool quickly (Fig. 4).
Marriage rituals (Girl request ceremony): The bride-to-be makes Turkish coffee to the groom and his family and is evaluated according to how well she prepares and presents Turkish coffee. The bride-to-be just puts a lot of salt in the groom's coffee, and the groom is expected to drink this salty coffee to prove what he will endure for the bride.
Traditional chat meetings: The idiom “A cup of coffee commits one to forty years of friendship”, which expresses that Turkish coffee has become the symbol of friendship and conversation and Turkish proverb “souls are after neither coffee nor coffee houses; they are after close companionship; coffee is an excuse” is frequently used in the country.
There are so many coffee types consumed in Turkey. Some of them are Yemen, menengiç (Pistacia terebinthus), Nigella sativa, carob, kenger, okra, almond , myrrh, dibek, cilveli , çedene  and chickpea  coffees are among the other types of coffee consumed in Turkey. Ulusoy  stated that Turkish coffee is preferred more than foreign coffees.
Although Turkish coffee has an important place in Turkish tradition, instant coffee consumption has increased in recent years. According to the International Coffee Organization, coffee consumption in Turkey has increased by an annual average of 15.6%. Therefore, both national and international coffee chains have increased their investments in Turkey. Starbucks, Tchibo, Caffe Nero, Gloria Jeans, MOC, Federal Coffee, Petra, Kahve Dünyası, Kahve Diyarı, Coffee Mania and Kronotrop are among the fastest growing brands. According to 2020 data, there are 523 Starbucks branches in Turkey, and Turkey is the second country with most Starbucks branches in Europe . For all these reasons, it is desired to examine how these trends in coffee consumption affect consumer preferences for traditional Turkish coffee and tea.